Risk analysis and prevention of the hottest food p

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Food packaging risk analysis and prevention

the situation of food safety has become very serious. For example, on October 13, 2005, Shanghai first finance and economics published an article titled "global ban on Japan and South Korea transferring carcinogenic PVC cling film to China for sale". It is reported that PVC food preservative films from Japan and South Korea have entered China on a large scale due to their ban in their own country. PVC fresh-keeping film is widely used in the packaging of fresh products such as vegetables, fruits and cooked foods in supermarkets in China. Since then, PVC fresh-keeping film has been widely concerned by the media and has also become the focus of public attention. During the spot check, it was also found that some PVC fresh-keeping films used for outer packaging contained plasticizer (DEHA). It is reported that there are 12 kinds of PVC fresh-keeping films containing DEHA. It is common to encounter trade barriers in food exports. Nowadays, Germany has put forward new requirements for the packaging cartons used in China's export of food. It is required to seal the cartons with glue as much as possible, and PVC or other plastic tapes are not allowed. At present, the trade barrier of EU to China's food packaging has risen from several to dozens, which restricts the export of China's food and makes people realize the importance of strengthening the safety of food packaging again

risk analysis is a new model to ensure safety in the world in recent years. In order to protect the health of consumers, it is particularly important to establish a scientific system of hazard assessment and management

1 risk analysis of food packaging

unsafe factors in food packaging include packaging materials, additives, biological hazards, pesticide residues, environmental pollution, etc

1. 1 packaging material

wooden packaging boxes usually use "density fiberboard". The adhesives used for this kind of fiberboard are mostly urea formaldehyde resin adhesives, and even phenolic adhesives used in furniture production. These materials contain a large amount of free formaldehyde, which is very easy to be absorbed by food. The formaldehyde in the packaging box exceeds the standard, resulting in eye, nose, throat and upper respiratory tract diseases

plastic is the most widely used food packaging material. Different additives are used according to different resins and adhesives used in making composites, such as TD I, TDA, etc. The unsafe hidden danger lies in the formaldehyde of UF, PF and MF, PVC in vinyl chloride monomer, PS in toluene, ethylbenzene, cumene and other compounds. The content of vinyl chloride monomer, a harmful substance, exceeds the standard. In October, PVC (polyvinyl chloride) food preservation film is easy to precipitate into the human body

due to different types of glass, there are also dissolved substances from raw materials, such as lead (lead crystalline glass) and arsenic (defoamer)

the explosion of beer non "B" bottle packaging often causes injuries, which directly endangers the personal safety of consumers

metal packaging is generally divided into foil and can material. The former uses aluminum foil; The latter is mostly used for tinning cans. However, aluminum foil is often used together with plastic film because of small pores. The surface of metal cans is mostly coated with plastic. Wooden containers, ceramic and enamel food containers. Although the texture of wooden food packaging containers is different from that of ceramic enamel food containers, their surfaces must be treated, or painted or glazed. Coatings and glazes are all chemicals (glazes contain sodium silicate and metal salts, with more lead). In addition, coloring pigments also contain metal salts, so there will also be unsafe risks. Especially, this material has excellent impact resistance (even at low temperature) and high chemical corrosion resistance. Gender is the popular density fiberboard moon cake and tea packaging box, which is annoying because it contains a large amount of free formaldehyde and other harmful volatile substances. The glaze is coated on the surface of ceramic or enamel blank. If the firing temperature is low, the dissolution of harmful metals can be seen in the 40% acetic acid dissolution test

1. 2 additive

the additive dissolution of packaging materials is the key to the realization of computer display that affects food safety and hygiene. Paper is the oldest and most traditional packaging material, but its potential insecurity can not be ignored. The main reason is that chemicals such as impervious agent/sizing agent, filler (making the paper opaque), bleach, dye, etc. need to be added to the pulp in the papermaking process. The anti-seepage agent mainly uses rosin soap; The filler adopts kaolin, calcium carbonate, titanium dioxide, zinc sulfide, barium sulfate and magnesium silicate; Calcium hypochlorite, hypochlorite, sodium peroxide and hydrogen peroxide are used as bleaching agents; Water soluble dyes and coloring pigments are used as colorants

most of the dissolved substances of paper come from chemical substances such as pulp additives. Among the dyes, red ones are mostly cadmium based metals, and yellow ones are mostly lead based metals. These metals can dissolve out and cause disease even below the ppm level. The colorants of paper contain toxic fluorescent dyes, waxed paper contains residual monomers, and some waxes also contain carcinogens. In addition, mold inhibitors or formaldehyde used in resin processing can be dissolved from paper products. Plastic packaging is also related to plastic additives 3.1 uh2503 plastic film tensile testing machine, such as stabilizers (antioxidants, stabilizers for vinyl chloride resins and UV absorbers), lubricants, colorants, antistatic agents, plasticizers, etc. Some plastic products are added with stabilizers, and these stabilizers are mainly lead stearate, in which the lead salt is easy to precipitate. Once inhaled, it will cause accumulated lead poisoning, which will endanger the health of consumers

when the fresh-keeping film containing DEHA meets grease or high temperature (more than 100 ℃), the plasticizer is easy to release, which will affect health after entering the human body with food. According to the regulations, the main raw material for the production of lunch boxes is polypropylene, and the content of industrial calcium carbonate as filling material cannot exceed 20%. Industrial calcium carbonate is a kind of powder with poor plasticity. It is difficult for the powder to bond together when used in excess. Therefore, the produced lunch boxes are prone to quality problems such as softness and leakage. Therefore, a special raw material industrial paraffin must also be added. Industrial paraffin contains carcinogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other harmful substances. If the precipitates in the lunch box are dissolved in the food, they are easy to be eaten by consumers, and the longer the food is placed in the lunch box, the greater its dissolution. The coloring of glass requires metal salts, such as cobalt oxide for blue, graphite, bamboo green, light white and dark green for brown, copper oxide and potassium dichromate. Cr+ 6 in potassium dichromate is a carcinogen; The safety and health law stipulates that the lead dissolution of lead crystalline glass should be limited to 1 ~ 2ppm

glazed ceramic packaging containers, such as the use of bright red or yellow painted patterns, often appear the dissolution of lead or cadmium

1. 3 microorganism

biological pollution is also called pathogenic microorganism. Biological pollution refers to the pollution caused by microorganisms, parasites, vector insects, etc. Pathogenic bacteria and viruses in microorganisms and some toxins they produce are factors that endanger human health. Biological pollution caused by nonstandard recycled packaging containers, food production and packaging processes and operating sites. The surface factors of packaging design, the uneven surface of packaging or food packaging, storage and transportation, and the dirt or dust absorption of food will lead to bacterial contamination. Biological pollution mainly comes from infectious poisoning caused by bacterial mass reproduction of contaminated food and toxin poisoning caused by bacterial toxin produced by bacterial reproduction. It is manifested by gastrointestinal inflammation, watery stool diarrhea, repeated vomiting, severe abdominal pain, convulsion and coma in severe cases, especially in children

1. 4 pesticide residues

in order to reduce the loss caused by wood diseases and pests, the use of pesticides is still one of the indispensable means. However, at present, most pesticides fail to get rid of the dilemma of acute toxicity, chronic toxicity and cumulative residual toxicity. Some blindly and unilaterally pursue economic benefits and use pesticides in large quantities, resulting in pesticide residues in wood greatly exceeding the standard. The packaging wooden boxes and papers made of this kind of wood have seriously affected people's physical and mental health

1. 5 environmental pollution

for example, dioxin pollution sources also come from urban waste incinerators. If the temperature of the incinerator is not to a certain extent, the dust emitted will contain dioxins, which will pollute the local soil and wood. Heavy metal pollution is mainly caused by water environment pollution, metal material pollution in the process of food production and processing, and food additives containing heavy metals. Most of them are poisoning events caused by lead, pot, mercury, arsenic and other pollution. The unreasonable discharge of sewage from mining, industrial "three wastes" and urban and rural residents' waste batteries, waste electrical appliances and domestic garbage can pollute the public water environment and increase or exceed the content of heavy metals in food packaging materials

1. 6 packaging design

some packages lack good stability and are easy to dump or scatter, or penetrate and flow out (liquid food); It even hurts people's edges, corners and burrs. There are also packages that leak (water, gas, etc.), change color, deformation, etc. during display. In the past, there was a rumor that "cans are delicious, and the lid is difficult to open". When using food, accessories or tools (such as openers, knives, etc.) are required for operation, which is easy to cause harm to users

2 risk prevention of food packaging

establish a good food packaging prevention system to prevent the risk of food packaging from the source of pollution and the way of infection

2. 1 packaging design

food packaging should have good stability and will not dump or move; It has good fixity and will not fall apart, penetrate or flow out (liquid food); Without injurious edges, corners and burrs; There are special hand-held devices to minimize temporary attachments (such as ropes, bags or others); The handling is universal, which can be carried out mechanically or manually; Take up as little space as possible

safety is advocated, and many easy to open cans have appeared. At the same time, the same is true of glass bottled oral liquid. The glass packaging of pull ring cover open oral liquid has become the mainstream today. The automatic operation is convenient and safe, without accessories or tools. It can be opened and enabled only by hand pulling, pressing, squeezing, etc. the opening tool attached to the package has a safe and reliable guarantee during use

different foods are matched with different packages, mainly in terms of chemical properties or colors. For example, the ingredients of food and packaging materials cannot produce harmful chemical reactions within a period of time after packaging; For another example, the color matching of food and packaging cannot mislead people visually. It is best to adapt to various forms of display, such as flat display, vertical display, hanging display, etc; The display quality is guaranteed and perspective. The food in the package is displayed through different packaging structures. For example, the food pattern consistent with the food in the package is displayed on the outer surface of the package, or the texture, color and shape of the inner packaged food can be seen by consumers through transparent packaging (or opening perspective windows), so that consumers have a sense of security and trust

2. 2 packaging materials and additives

the food safety and health law stipulates that fluorescent dyes are prohibited from being used in food packaging materials. Paper dyed with fluorescent dyes cannot be used for food packaging. Therefore, wax paper has been forbidden to be used in modern packaging

generally, safe stabilizers should be used, and heavy metal stabilizers should be used with caution. Lead, cadmium chloride, dibutyltin compounds and other stabilizers are generally prohibited for food packaging materials. The addition amount of plasticizer should be controlled within 5% - 40%, and the addition amount of other additives should be less than 3%

if the color of the dye dissolves, only food additive dyes can be used. In Europe and the United States, the adhesive of flexible packaging has gradually turned to water-based or solvent-free products, and alcohol soluble ink has replaced toluene ink, which has also become a major development trend in Europe, America and South Korea

vigorously develop pollution-free, safe, high-quality green food packaging materials, protect the environment, and reduce food packaging costs

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