How to reduce the safety accident rate of hoisting

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How to reduce the safety accident rate of hoisting machinery

as one of the eight categories of special equipment, the accident rate of hoisting machinery has been high in recent years. There are many reasons, mainly including lagging standards, insufficient design foresight, backward manufacturing technology, lax installation quality control, inadequate use and management, etc. In order to reduce the occurrence of safety accidents of hoisting machinery, we can start with formulating and revising relevant regulations and standards, strengthening supervision and management, etc

□ Hu Xiaolong, Xiong Baigen

lifting machinery is one of the eight categories of special equipment according to national regulations. Whether it is the equipment itself or the use link, from the perspective of safety requirements, it is not dangerous compared with other special equipment. However, according to the accident statistics of the General Administration of quality supervision, inspection and Quarantine of the people's Republic of China in recent years, the accident rate of hoisting machinery and the absolute number of casualties caused by accidents have always been at the top of the eight categories of special equipment. In 2009, the General Administration of quality supervision, inspection and Quarantine of the people's Republic of China (AQSIQ) has made the safety of hoisting machinery the focus of the annual "three actions", hoping to reduce the safety accidents of hoisting machinery through rectification

why does the accident rate of hoisting machinery remain high? Through years of experience in the safety inspection of hoisting machinery, the main reasons are as follows

the accident rate is high, and the reasons are complex

the standard lags behind. The lag of standard revision leads to the dilution of innovative design consciousness of hoisting machinery. The design of hoisting machinery in China is based on the code for design of cranes GB, and the design safety requirements are mainly the safety code for hoisting machinery GB. These two general technical specifications and standards were issued in the 1980s, which played a decisive role in the standardized management of hoisting machinery at that time. However, with the mass production and use of hoisting machinery, as well as the improvement of production technology and the use of new materials, the standard cannot be applied in some occasions. The safety regulations for hoisting machinery is the main theoretical basis for the inspection regulations for hoisting machinery. The 2009 version of the new inspection regulations has been issued and has been implemented since April 1 this year, while the revised version of its theoretical basis, the safety regulations for hoisting machinery, has not been issued yet. Once there is a big difference between the new inspection regulations and the new safety regulations, the inspection institutions will feel at a loss about the inspection of hoisting machinery

the design is not forward-looking. When some lifting machinery manufacturers develop and design new products, they do not fully consider the load conditions of the stressed components in various service environments. The reliability of the braking system of the lifting mechanism is the key factor to determine the safety performance of the lifting machinery. Most of the safety accidents of the lifting machinery in the use process are related to the lifting mechanism. The lifting mechanism basically adopts electromagnet electromechanical brake, and the key to action reliability is the control of electromagnet coil. The design of electrical control system of lifting machinery has been a weak link in China for more than 20 years

the level of manufacturing technology is backward. There are certain differences between China's lifting machinery standards and European and American standards, which makes it difficult for Sino foreign joint ventures of lifting machinery to form a climate in China. The technical content of some small and medium-sized lifting machinery needs to be improved. In addition, due to market competition, the profits of production enterprises are also very limited, and the funds invested in new product research and development are also very limited

the installation quality control is not strict. The installation and acceptance of hoisting machinery has always been the final completion acceptance inspection. The quality control of the whole installation process completely depends on the quality and technical level of operators. The installation process of the equipment is actually a continuation of the manufacturing process, and its on-site operation conditions are worse than the manufacturing link. The manufacturing and construction specifications of hoisting machinery have no clear standards and requirements for the process control of the construction process, which to a large extent led to the low-level construction of the installation link, especially the hidden and structural defects caused by illegal operations and some insufficient construction processes, which buried hidden dangers for the accident. Since April 1, the new inspection regulations have been implemented, and the final acceptance inspection of hoisting machinery has been revised to the supervision and inspection of the whole installation process, which provides a strong guarantee for the installation quality of hoisting machinery in the future

use management is not in place. The safety accidents occurred in the use link are the focus of the safety accidents of the whole lifting machinery, and the main reason is that the management of the user unit is not in place. Management here mainly refers to the management of people and equipment. With the restructuring of state-owned enterprises and the development of private enterprises, it is difficult to ensure that each lifting machinery is operated by qualified personnel. In addition, the weak safety awareness of special equipment of private enterprise owners is also an important reason for the safety accidents of hoisting machinery. On the other hand, equipment management includes daily inspection and planned repair of equipment. Daily inspection is mainly the inspection of equipment safety performance, which is often the easiest to ignore. And some enterprises do not even arrange the annual repair plan of hoisting machinery. In addition, illegal operation is also the main reason for safety accidents during the use of lifting machinery

there are other reasons for the safety accidents of hoisting machinery. The use environment, load classification, illegal or unqualified production of hoisting machinery may be the reasons for the accidents

grasp the key, root and root causes

how to reduce the occurrence of safety accidents of lifting machinery? As lifting machinery inspectors, we think we should start from the following aspects:

first, introduce (revise) general technical standards that meet the production, installation and use requirements of the current lifting machinery industry as soon as possible and fully consider the international synchronization, For example, the revision of the safety regulations for hoisting machinery should focus on the control of the brake of the hoisting mechanism, and make full use of the auxiliary braking function of the electric brake to protect the excess capacity of the brake

second, encourage Sino foreign cooperation in the production of hoisting machinery in China, introduce advanced technology, improve the technical content and safety performance of hoisting machinery and the overall manufacturing level of hoisting machinery in China

third, strengthen the supervision and management of the lifting machinery industry and severely crack down on the illegal and over range production of lifting machinery. In terms of policy, we should give preference to those lifting machinery manufacturers with high technology content and high safety performance, eliminate or shut down some enterprises with low technology content, low safety performance and low price to compete in the market, and encourage lifting machinery manufacturing enterprises to introduce high-tech talents, especially control talents, to design lifting machinery with new ideas

fourth, Bayer polyurethane at all levels, with its excellent thermal insulation and cold insulation performance, the supervision department should strictly enforce the statutory training and assessment of operators, especially the training of post operation management energy-saving design skills within the user unit, highlight the enterprise safety production personnel system, strengthen the safety awareness of special equipment of the main person in charge of the enterprise, standardize the operation process of operators, and improve the safety awareness of enterprise personnel engaged in special operations, The use units of hoisting machinery are encouraged to implement the daily spot inspection management mode of equipment

fifth, since the supervision and inspection of lifting machinery has been carried out after completion for a long time, the supervision and inspection of installation process according to the new inspection regulations needs all inspectors to change their ideas and improve their business level. Theoretically, we should strengthen the study and understanding of inspection rules, understand the weak links in the manufacturing and installation process, so as to formulate practical inspection operation guidance documents to ensure the inspection quality. On this basis, in addition to the routine inspection according to the inspection rules in the future regular inspection process of the hoisting machinery installed and used in the past, it is also necessary to check the links that are easy to bring hidden dangers and defects in the installation and manufacturing, and use advanced detection means to add some necessary detection items to prevent accidents

sixth, it is advocated that the hoisting machinery used in construction sites should be managed by means of barrier free communication of supervision, inspection and supervision management, so as to ensure that the construction hoisting machinery with potential safety hazards cannot continue to be put into use before rectification is in place

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